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Mythbusters

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MythBusters is a popular science television program produced by Australian firm Beyond Television Productions[1] originally for the Discovery Channel in Canada and the United States. The series has since been picked up by a number of international broadcasters, including SBS in Australia, and BBC2 in the UK. The series stars special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use basic elements of the scientific method to test the validity of various rumors, urban legends, myths, movie scenes and news stories in popular culture.

Filming for MythBusters is based in San Francisco, California, though some elements of production are done in Artarmon, Australia. Planning and some experimentation usually takes place at the cast's workshops; experiments that require more space or special accommodations are filmed on location, typically around the Bay Area. During the second season, several members of Savage and Hyneman's team ("The Build Team") were split off into a second team of MythBusters, and now typically test separate myths from the main duo.

History

Initial pilots for the show were first created for the Discovery Channel under the title Tall Tales or True[2] by producer Peter Rees of Beyond Productions in 2002. Discovery then commissioned three additional pilot specials. Jamie Hyneman came to the show through Rees, who had previously interviewed him for his appearance on BattleBots. Adam Savage, who had worked with Hyneman in commercials and on BattleBots, was approached by Hyneman to help co-host the show because, according to Savage, Hyneman felt himself too uninteresting to host the show on his own.[3][4]

In July 2006, an edited thirty-minute version of MythBusters began airing on BBC Two in the UK. The episodes shown on the European Discovery Channel sometimes include extra scenes not shown in the U.S. version (some of these scenes eventually make their way into "specials", such as "MythBusters Outtakes").

Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman are the original MythBusters, and initially explored all the myths on the show using their common background in special effects. The two work at Hyneman's effects workshop, M5 Industries; they make use of his staff, though they often work off-screen, with Hyneman and Savage usually shown doing most of the work at the shop. One of the show's gimmicks is the interaction between Savage and Hyneman, which is similar to a double act, wherein Hyneman plays the straight man and Savage is the comic relief. The show is narrated by Robert Lee, though in some regions his voice is replaced by a local narrator.

As the series progressed, some members of Hyneman's staff were introduced to the audience and began to regularly appear in episodes. Three such members, artist Kari Byron, builder Tory Belleci and metal-worker Scottie Chapman, split off in the second season to form a second team of MythBusters, dubbed the "Build Team". After Chapman left the show for personal reasons during the third season, Grant Imahara, a colleague of Hyneman, was brought in to round out the team with his electrical and robotics experience. The Build Team now works at its own workshop, called M7,[5] investigating separate myths from the original duo. Each episode now typically jumps back and forth between the two teams covering different myths.

The show has had two interns, dubbed "Mythterns": Discovery Channel contest winner Christine Chamberlain and viewer building contest-winner Jess Nelson; neither is with the show now. In the first season, the program featured segments with folklorist Heather Joseph-Witham, who explained the origins of certain urban legends, and other people who had first-hand experience with the myths being tested, but those elements were phased out early in the series. However, the MythBusters still commonly consult with experts for myths in areas in which they need outside assistance. These areas commonly include firearms, for which they most commonly consult Sgt. Al Normandy of the South San Francisco Police Department, and explosives, for which they most commonly consult retired FBI explosives expert Frank Doyle. The MythBusters will also routinely ask those they come in contact with during testing (such as those supplying the equipment being tested) if they have ever heard of the myth in question.

Each MythBusters episode typically focuses on several urban legends, popular beliefs, Internet rumors, or other myths. The list of myths tested by the show is compiled from many sources, including the personal experiences of cast and crew, as well as fan suggestions, such as those posted on The Discovery Channel online MythBusters forums.[6] Occasionally, episodes are produced in which some or all of the myths are related by theme, and occasionally these are dubbed as "[Theme] Special" episodes. As of August 2008, three myths have required such extensive preparation and testing that they had entire episodes devoted solely to them,[7] and four specials have been double-length.

Experiment methodology

The MythBusters typically set out to test myths following a two-step process. In early episodes, the steps were described as "replicate the circumstances, then duplicate the results" by Savage.[9] This means that first the team attempts to recreate the circumstances that the myth alleges to see whether the alleged result occurs; if that fails, they attempt to expand the circumstances to the point that will cause the described result. Occasionally the team (usually Savage and Hyneman) will hold a friendly competition between themselves to see which of them can come up with a more successful solution to recreating the results. This is most common with myths involving building an object that can accomplish a goal (for example, rapidly cooling a beer, or finding a needle in a haystack).

While there is no specific formula the team follows in terms of physical procedure, most myths involve construction of various objects to help test the myth. They utilize their functional workshops to create whatever is needed, often including mechanical devices and sets to simulate the circumstances of the myth. Human actions are often simulated by mechanical means in order to increase safety, and to achieve consistency in repeated actions. Methods for testing myths are usually planned and executed in a manner to produce visually dramatic results,[10] which generally involves explosions, fires, and/or vehicle crashes. Thus, myths or tests involving explosives, firearms and vehicle collisions are relatively common.

Tests are sometimes confined to the workshop, but often require the teams to move outside. Much of the outdoor testing in early seasons took place in the parking lot of M5. A cargo container in the parking lot commonly serves as an isolation room for dangerous myths, with the experiment being triggered from outside. However, budget increases have permitted more frequent travel to other locations in San Francisco and around the Bay Area. Common filming locations around the Bay Area include decommissioned (closed) military facilities (such as Naval Air Station Alameda, Naval Station Treasure Island, Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Hamilton Air Force Base), and the Alameda County Sheriff's Bomb Squad and Firearm range. Occasionally, mainly for special episodes, production moves out of state, or even out of the country.

Results are measured in a manner scientifically appropriate for the given experiment. Sometimes results can be measured by simple numerical measurement using standard tools, such as multimeters for electrical measurements, or various types of thermometers to measure temperature. To gauge results that don't yield numerical quantities, the teams commonly make use of several types of equipment which can provide other forms of observable effects. When testing physical consequences to a human body which would be too dangerous to test on a living person, the MythBusters commonly use analogs. Initially, they mainly used crash test dummies (most notably one they named Buster) for observing blunt trauma injury, and ballistic gelatin for testing penetrating trauma. They have since progressed to using pig carcasses when an experiment requires a more accurate simulation of human flesh, bone, and organs. They have also occasionally molded real or simulated bones within ballistics gel for simulations of specific body parts.

Both for the purposes of visual observation to determine a result, and simply as a unique visual for the program, high speed cameras are used during experiments and have become a trademark of the series. High-speed footage of moving objects in front of a measured scale is commonly utilized to determine the speed of the object.

Testing is often edited due to time constraints of a televised episode. It can often seem as if the teams draw results from fewer repetitions and a smaller data set than they actually have. During the Outtakes Special, they specifically stated that while they are, in fact, very thorough in testing myths and repeat experiments many times in many different configurations, it is simply impossible to display all of it on the show. Beginning in the fifth season, episodes typically contain a prompt for the viewer to visit the show's homepage to view outtake footage of either additional testing, or other facets of the myths being tested. However, Savage himself has acknowledged that they do not purport to always achieve a satisfactorily large enough set of results to definitively overcome all bias.[11]

In response to criticisms they receive about their methods and results in previous episodes,[11] the show produced several "Myths Revisited" episodes, in which the teams retest myths to see if the complaints have merit. These episodes have resulted in overturning results of several myths, as well as upholding some results for different reasons than originally concluded.

There are some myths and urban legends the MythBusters refuse to test. Paranormal concepts, such as aliens or ghosts, are not addressed because they cannot be tested by scientific methods, although one exception, pyramid power, prompted Adam to comment, "No more 'oogie-boogie' myths, please." The program generally avoids experiments harmful to animals, though in one episode they bombarded cockroaches and other laboratory insects with lethal doses of radiation and the cast addressed this, saying that the insects were specifically bred for experiments and would have likely died anyway. The book MythBusters: The Explosive Truth Behind 30 of the Most Perplexing Urban Legends of All Time (ISBN 1-4169-0929-X) also gives a list of a dozen urban legends that are unlikely to be explored (although three were eventually tested). Savage has commented that it is difficult to test myths that require them to disprove general claims because of the inherent difficulty in proving a negative. As a result, when they do pursue such myths, they typically go about disproving specific methods that claim to achieve results.[12] Additionally, certain myths are not tested due to various objections by Discovery Channel or their advertisers.

Conclusions of the experiments

By the end of each episode, each myth is rated Busted, Plausible, or Confirmed.

Busted

The myth's results cannot be replicated via either the described parameters nor reasonably exaggerated ones. Often, when a myth is declared Busted, the team will try to see what would be required to replicate the result of the myth, regardless of the facts within the myth itself. This is commonly referred to in the show as "the MythBusters way."






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